The Impacts of Migration and Displaced People of Undivided Goalpara District of Assam ?>

The Impacts of Migration and Displaced People of Undivided Goalpara District of Assam

Dr. Akbar Badsha
Dr. Shaher Ali

Abstract:
There are various accounts about the origin of the name of “Goalpara” These are- (i) during the region of Dev. kings of ancient Kamrup (11th Century) Goalpara was under the administration of a Deputy administration named Iswara Ghosa. It is said that he was influenced by the religious ethic of Buddhism and became too generous to his subjects. He granted a plot of land to the Brahmins of the then Gwalittippika District which it may be presumed formed a part of modern District of Goalpara. There is a general belief that the present name of Goalpara is perhaps, derived from Guwalittippika which literally means Gwali village or Milkmen’s village (ii) There is char reforming of alluvial land on the bed of river near the confluence of the river Manas with the mighty Brahmaputra which in course of time, became a suitable place for cowherds. Many cowherds “Goals” as they are called, settled in the Char for grazing their cattle, and the place came to be popularly known as “Goaltuli” It is believed that the name ‘Goalpara’ is derived from the term, “Goaltuli in the corrupt form. (iii) The District was named after the Goalpara town which became the headquater of the District during British regime.

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Introduction
There are various accounts about the origin of the name of “Goalpara” These are- (i) during the region of Dev. kings of ancient Kamrup (11th Century) Goalpara was under the administration of a Deputy administration named Iswara Ghosa. It is said that he was influenced by the religious ethic of Buddhism and became too generous to his subjects. He granted a plot of land to the Brahmins of the then Gwalittippika District which it may be presumed formed a part of modern District of Goalpara. There is a general belief that the present name of Goalpara is perhaps, derived from Guwalittippika which literally means Gwali village or Milkmen’s village (ii) There is char reforming of alluvial land on the bed of river near the confluence of the river Manas with the mighty Brahmaputra which in course of time, became a suitable place for cowherds. Many cowherds “Goals” as they are called, settled in the Char for grazing their cattle, and the place came to be popularly known as “Goaltuli” It is believed that the name ‘Goalpara’ is derived from the term, “Goaltuli in the corrupt form. (iii) The District was named after the Goalpara town which became the headquater of the District during British regime. Taking all these together, we may come to the conclusion that the place came to be known as such as the Goals lived there. Thus, the name Goalpara is associated with the vernacular term, ‘Goali or Goal” which means milkman.

The original Goalpara district was first created in 1822 A.D. by David Scott, an employee of East India company, who was the first commissioner of newly created North East Rangpur district Hd. qt. at Rangpur town (now in Bangladesh) and newly created Goalpara district was also tagged with North-East Rangpur district for administration. The erswhile Bijini kingdom’s area which included the undivided Garo Hills district area also constituted the original Goalpara district area in 1822 . In 1866 Garo Hills was separated from Goalpara district area and in the same year a new district named “Greater Koch Behar” was created and the residual portion of Goalpara district was withdrawn from Rangpur and tagged with Koch Behar. In 1874 a new province named Assam Valley Province was created by the British Govt. (Successor of East India Company) and Goalpara district area was withdrawn from Koch Behar and tagged with Assam Province which continues till today unless petty political gambling disturbs. Now the original Goalpara district has given birth of five districts namely – Goalpara , Dhubri, Kokrajhar , Bongaigaon and Chirang.

Methodology
The field study method is used to conduct smooth collection of data. The statistical methods are applied in various pages like population patterns, Revenue villages, agriculture, various government project. The behavioural method is also applied to complete the process. The behaviour of the press, social activities, etc. are incorporated the data are collected from both primary and secondary sources. The study of the displaced people brought the unity of the groups of people having conflicting interest of Goalpara district. Goalpara was one of the most neglected districts of Assam. The study focuses the attention on Goalpara like other parts of Assam. This was a definite gain derived from the study. The study of displaced people contributed largely to the changeover of language from Bengali to Assamese in the courts and offices of Goalpara district. This is a positive gain of the study. Goalpara Loko Sanskriti is finally recognized by other indigenous Assamese communities in Assam. Now, Goalpara Loko Sanskriti is a part and parcel of Assamese culture.

Importance and objectives
The fertile land of the extreme lower part of Goalpara district supports huge population with livelihood primarily dominated by agriculture. The mighty Brahmaputra with its tributaries naturally changing its direction destroys the densely populated villages every year leaving the people homeless. Shifting the residential place by the displaced people who have to migrate to the nearest districts and state for their permanent residence with the advent of quality living style, a large portion of the displaced people shifted themselves to Meghalaya, West Bengal and various districts of Assam for livelihood leaving their Belongings displaced by the mighty Brahmaputra.

The study of the internally displaced people of Goalpara district is very much essential in the present context. what is the prime cause of displacement, how much people have been displaced, what is the present socio-economic condition of such displaced people, that measures have been taken by the authorities to give them proper shelter are to be highlighted and the present condition of their lives is highly important and a matter of study and research particularly. What steps have been taken by the Human Rights Commission to protect them from inhuman treatment and position is an important aspect for this study.

The displaced people of Goalpara district are wandering every part of the country in search of their livelihood. Some of them become manual labour, bonded labour in the town and city area. They have to earn their livelihood to maintain the dependent as mason, carpenter, helper and daily wage labourer. The minors are working in the tea stalls, various shops and enterprise as orderly and boy servant. The seniors, having no alternative dwell in the slum area of the city and big towns. The maid servants are mostly from the displaced people due to various reasons. The displaced people of Goalpara district are scattered everywhere and live with the jobs available at the moment.

The study of internally displaced people will bring new dimension for the researchers and thinkers of the society. Having no evidential document of their original residence sometimes most of them are treated as illegally migrated from other country particularly from Bangladesh. The social thinkers find them externally imposing, authority have to face the burden to indentify them and the fact of unwilling harassment is done. Actually, the life style, custom, tradition, socio- religious faith and belief of the people of Goalpara district and the people of Bangladesh are more or less same. So, such an important study will put light on the original picture of the displaced people and segregate them from the foreigners.

Hence, it is trying through this study to find out the real picture, nature of migration and displacement and make it conclusions. In this study , it is sought to minimise social tension and controversy to a better extent .

Description of the Displaced people
The displaced people of Goalpara District are basically cultivators and continued their livelihood through the art of agriculture. The mightly Brahmaputra has compelled them to change their residence in different places of Assam as well as India. Migration is their natural duties. They have no alternative but to search for work in various places in India. Therefore, the living style of the people of Goalpara District is bound to change. The displaced people are to take shelter in various Government lands, houses at the time of flood erroted and natural calamities. Since 1947, there are so many revenue villages erroted in the Brahmaputra valley of Goalpara district. Total number of revenue villages in the Goalpara district is more than 3500. Out of these total numbers of revenue villages 143 villages were fully erroted and 540 villages were partially erroted.

In Assam, some ethnic movements were also started by following the movement launched by AASU, such as Bodo Movement , Rabha – Hasong Movement, Dimasa Movement, Marry Movement and Lalung Movement. The result of these movements is the creation of autonomous council in their respective areas. During the course of their movement, Muslims and Bengali spoken Hindus who were erroted and have been living in the ethinic areas are victimised. Several living camps have been established by the Govt. of Assam. Ethinic people of the camps are called Bangladeshis or foreigners.

Conclusion
In conclusion, we can say that t he study of the internally displaced people of Goalpara district is very much essential in the present context. What is the prime cause of displacement, how much people have been displaced, what is the present socio-economic condition of such displaced people, what measures have been taken by the authorities to give them proper shelter and the present condition of their lives are highly important and a matter of study and research particularly. Minimum steps have been taken by the human rights commission to protect them from inhuman treatment.

Refernences
1. Allen B.C Goalpara District Gazetters, Voll-III
2. Demographic trend in Assam : 1982
3. Society and polities in Assam : Narayan Knowar 2006
4. Char-Chapori Samaj Dorpon-69 Asom Sathitya Sabha : Chapor Year 1999
5. Political History of Assam : Bhuyan A.C. 1978
6. Human Rights. By Dr. Jaigeswar Borah.

The writer is the Dr. Akbar Badsha, Deptt. of Political Scicence, & the Dr. Shaher Ali, Deptt. of History, Hatsingimari College.

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