Adolescence and Juvenile Delinquency: A Study with Special Reference to Juvenile Justice Board (JJB), Dibrugarh, Assam ?>

Adolescence and Juvenile Delinquency: A Study with Special Reference to Juvenile Justice Board (JJB), Dibrugarh, Assam

Dr. Manashi Gogoi Borgohain

Abstract:
Adolescence is crucial and important period of human life as it is the transition period between childhood and maturity. They are the youths who are the future of the society as well as of the nation. It is the time when the individual is expected to prepare himself/herself for adult life by replacing childish attitudes and behaviour patterns with those of an adult type. Stanley Hall said that “Adolescence is the period of storm and stress”. Delinquency is one of the main storm or stress of this stage. Delinquency means the violating behaviours, comprising only of those offences by minors that would be punishable in the case of adults. Delinquency is one of the burning problems of present day society. The paper is based on the juvenile under JJB Dibrugarh. The government, JJBs, NGOS and other social organizations are taking this matter as the responsibility of their concern. If mass media, society and parents take initiative to solve the problem, then the problem may be shorted out very soon.

Key -Words: Adolescence, Juvenile, Behaviour, Environment, Attitude.

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1.1: Introduction
Adolescence is crucial and important period of human life as it is the transition period between childhood and maturity.The word “adolescence” has come from Latin word adolescence which means “to grow” or “to grow to maturity”. From physiological point of view, an individual attains adolescence with the advent of puberty and the ability to produce its kind. But now-a-days the term is used mental, emotional, and social maturity with physical maturity. It is the time when the individual is expected to prepare himself/herself for adult life by replacing childish attitudes and behaviour patterns with those of an adult type. . It is said to be the most important period of human growth timing from 12-18 years of age. But normally adolescence appears at the age of 11-12 in case of girls and at the age of 12-13 in case of boys. Different psychologists have tried to define the term ‘adolescence’ in different ways. According to Dorothy Rogers, “Adolescence is a process rather than a period, a process of achieving the attitudes and beliefs needed for effective participation in the society”. Stanley Hall also said that “Adolescence is a period of storm and stress of life”. It is usually seen that the adolescents are no longer children and adults and this fact makes them more confused. The elders of the society sometimes won them to behave like an adult and sometimes they are treated as a child. This creates in them regarding their own role. So we may say that adolescence is the period of neither a child nor an adult. The most important characteristics of adolescence are: rapid physical development, mental and intellectual development, social development, moral development, sexual development, hero worship, religious feelings, extroversion, gregarious instinct, excessive imagination, excessive sentimentality, self- confidence, spirit of adventure, etc.

Due to the significant characteristics of this stage including rapid changes in physical, mental, moral, social, sexual and intellectual development the problems such as sexual problem, the problem of freedom from home, the problem of security, peer group relationship, vocational choice and need of self- support and delinquency, etc. arise. Out of the problems, delinquency is one of the main problems of this period.

1.2. Delinquency
Delinquency is one of the most serious problems of adolescent stage of human life. This problem has been affecting a lot the environment of the present day society. Most of the incidences or anti-social behaviour of the present day society arise from the delinquency problem. The incidences of anti-social behaviour have tremendously increased in intensity and magnitude in recent years. Several incidents involving teenagers in a varsity of delinquent acts have posed serious problems before all who believe in healthy and harmonious development of children.

Psychology gives the term some definition. According to Valentine,“Broadly speaking the term delinquency refers to the breaking of some laws”. According to Goadwar and others, “A delinquent is a child or youth (below 18) who repeatedly commits acts which are punishable as crimes.” Sethna said, “Juvenile Delinquency involves wrong doing by a child or a young person who is under an age specified by law of the place concerned”. From the definitions it is quite clear that delinquency means a violating behaviour, it comprises only of those offences by minors that would be punishable in the case of adults. It is very difficult to find a comprehensive and unique definition of the team, because socially disapproved behaviour varies with time, place, cultural variance, social-economic and political conditions of the country.

1.3. Juvenile Justice Board (JJB)
Juveniles accused of a crime or detained for a crime are brought before the JJB under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000 (Amended in 2006) under this act and provisions of criminal court. The purpose of a separate court is not taken to a regular criminal court. The purpose of a separate court is that its purpose is socio-legal rehabilitation and reformation, not punishment. The juvenile JJB consists of a metropolitan magistrate or a judicial magistrate of the first class and two social workers at least one of whom should be a woman. JJB are meant to resolve cases within a four month period. JJB of Dibrugarh has been playing a significant role in reforming the behaviour of delinquents. The investigator has taken the juvenile board as the area of the study.

1.4. Significance of the Problem
Juvenile delinquency is one of the burning problems of our society. This problem is one of the main bases of increasing number of crimes in our society day by day. Therefore, research studies on juvenile delinquency are the need of the present society. The researcher wishes to draw attention of the society as well as the concerned personalities to make the issue a thinkable one.

1.5. Statement of the Problem
The statement of the problem is ‘Adolescence and Juvenile Delinquency: A Study with Special Reference to Juvenile Justice Board ( JJB), Dibrugarh, Assam.

2. Objectives
The objectives of the study are-
2.1. To study the of problem areas during 2014-2016.
2.2. To study the problems during the period of 2014-2016.
2.3. To provide measurable suggestions for solving the problems.

3. Methodology
Data have been collected from secondary sources with special reference to the objective of the study which is a piece of descriptive research. This method describes and interprets what exists at present.

3.1. Population:
All the Juvenile in the JJP Dibrugah during the 2014-15 and all the members of JJB Dibrugah are the population.

3.2. Sample:
6 experts, and 107 juvenile delinquents of Juvenile Justice Board, JJB Dibrugah were selected as the sample for the study by using complete enumeration technique.

4.0. Findings of the Study
The required data are collected with the help of information schedules and questionnaire. Objective wise findings are as follows:
4.1: Objective 1: To study the problem areas during 2014-2016.
The collected data are presented below:
Table No -1: The problem areas year wise during 2014-2016

Year             Problem Areas
2014 to  2016October) Theft, Murder, Robbery, Kidnapping, Sexual Cases, Extortion, Assault, Culpable Homicide and Pasco Act.

The table shows that the main problem areas that have found during the period 2014 to 2016 (October) are theft, murder, robbery, kidnapping, sexual cases, extortion, assault, culpable homicide and Pasco Act.

4.2: Objective 2: To Study the Problems among the Age Group 11/12-18 During 2014 -2016

Table No-1:The Problems among the Age Group 11/12-18 in the Year 2014-2016

 

Year

 

Total

Juvenile

 

Theft

 

Murder/Attempt to Murder

 

Robbery

 

Kidnapping

 

Sexual Case

Other

(Assault, Culpable  Homicide,

Pasco Act Extortion etc)

2014  

35

22 4 2 5 2 Nil
Percentage 62.86% 11.43% 5.71% 14.29% 5.71%  
2015     37 25 3 4 2 3 Nil
Percentage 67.57% 8.11% 10.81% 5.41% 8.11%  
2016     35 5 8 3 2 4 12
Percentage 14.29% 22.86% 8.57% 5.71% 11.29% 34.29%

The above table reveals that out of a number of 35 juveniles found in the JJB, Dibrugarh, 62.86% juveniles are involved in theft cases, 11.43% juveniles are involved in murder cases, 5.71% juveniles are involved in robbery case , 14.29% juveniles are involved in kidnapping and 5.71% sexual cases are found as the victim in the year 2014.

Out of total 37 cases, 67.57% are involved in theft case, 8.11% are involved in murder case, 10.81% are involved in robbery case, 5.41% are involved in kidnapping and 8.11% sexual cases are found as the victim in the year 2015.

Up to the month of October 2016 the total number of juvenile in JJB Dibrugarh is 35, out of them 14.29% are involved in theft case, 22.86% are in murder case and attempt to murder case, 8.57% are in robbery case, 5.71% are in kidnapping and 11.43% sexual cases (as the victim ) and 34.29% are found in other offences like, extortion, assault, culpable homicide and Pasco Act.

4.3: Objective3: To Provide Measurable Suggestions
After face to face interview with 6 experts of JJB Dibrugarh, following suggestions are found out.

• Adequate provision should be given by the parents and schools for inculcating better
social interest, skills and attitude.
• The parents and teachers must take care of their emotional needs of this stage.
• Parents, teachers and social workers should join their hands in creating suitable atmosphere of
moral or value education.
• Social organizations and mass media should be involved actively.
• Proper suggestions for juvenile or adolescents should be included in the curriculum.
• Teachers should give personal attention toward delinquents. They should try for maximum
involvement of the adolescents in extra-curricular activities. It may help to sort out the
delinquency problem.
• Value education at home as well as school environment is the urgent need to solve the
delinquency problem.
• Vocational guidance or career counselling should be provided to the adolescence.
Quality education should be provided to the juvenile.

5. Discussion and Conclusion
Adolescence is the period of storm and stress, doing something wrong is very natural in this stage. It is observed that theft, murder, robbery, kidnapping sexual cases, extortion, assault, culpable, homicide and Pasco Act are found among the juvenile under JJB, Dibrugarh, Assam. This is a burning problem of our society which makes the society like handicapped children. As we know that the youths are the future of the society as- well-as the nation , we should make the younger generation or the youths very active and should make them intellectually, morally, mentally, socially, emotionally and culturally sound. Proper and active participation of the mass media is needed to overcome the problem. The government, JJBs, NGOs and other social organizations are taking this matter as the responsibility of their concern. Our parents and society should take initiative to sort out the problem from our society very soon for the better future of the nation.

References
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Bora Saikia, Dr.Veda Kumar etal. Siksha Manobigyan. Jorhat: Bidya Bhawan, 2011-12. Print.

Goswami, Sri Rajani Kanta. Educatinal Technology , Psychological Experiment and Statiocal Practical. Dibrugarh, Assam: Sri Makhan Hazarika on Behalf of Banalata, 2003. Print.

Goswami, Dr. Marami. Essentials of Educational Psychology. Dibrugarh: N.E. Publishing House, 2015. Print.

EdutracksVol: II. “A monthly Scanner of Trends in Education”. Hyderabad, India: Neelkamal publication, 2012. Print.

The writer is the Dr. Manashi Gogoi Borgohain.,Head, Department of Education., Nandalal Borgohain City College Dibrugarh.

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