Impact of Globalization in Higher Education: A Study on Maharashtra, India ?>

Impact of Globalization in Higher Education: A Study on Maharashtra, India

 

Prof. Baliram V.Pawar – 

Abstract:

Globalization means socially changed connectivity among societies and their elements. Globalization can mean the formal global village closer in contact among different parts of the world with increasing possibilities of personal exchange, mutual understanding and friendship between world cities. In today’s world globalization is an important concern. Rapid increase in knowledge through globalization, new potentials for developing countries are growing faster. The impact of globalization results the diffusion of knowledge for the benefit of all. Today, in the age of globalization India exposes to the world in all spheres including higher education.

The impact of globalization on education brings rapid development in technology and communication. Its impact brings changes within learning systems across the world as ideas, values and knowledge are changing the roles of students and teachers. The objective of the paper is to study the impact of the globalization in the higher education of Maharashtra. As the impact of globalization brings rapid changes in the field of higher education all over the world, India as well as Maharashtra is not an exception. The present paper has tried to highlight various initiatives taken by the government of Maharashtra with the advent of globalization, namely, private sectors’ participation in higher education. Addressing quality issues at existing higher education, promoting distance education, National Assessment Accreditation Council for grading of universities and colleges collaborating with the multi-national companies have established international centres for excellence to attract students and faculties for higher education.

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Introduction

Globalization is the process of interconnectedness of people across the world that leads to global cultural, educational, political and economic integration. It is the ability to move and communicate easily with others all over the world. In literal sense, globalization means social change connectivity among societies and their elements. Globalization can mean the formation of global village closer in contact among different parts of the world with increasing possibilities of personal exchange, mutual understanding and friendship among world citizens.

Kanujana.D says that the origin of globalization involves economic factors with trade and finance liberalization. R.P.SING defines globalization as universalization, internationalization, liberalization, westernization and deteritorization. According to the human resource development report by UNDP 1999, it is the process of integrating economy, society, education, culture, technology and governance.

In today’s world, globalization is an important concern. Rapid increase in knowledge through globalization new potentials for developing countries is growing faster. The impact of globalization results the diffusion of knowledge for the benefit of all. Today, in the age of globalization, India exposes to the world in all spheres including higher education. In the present competitive world expansion, excellence and inclusion are the three challenges of Indian education system. For students in higher education it is important to understand and appreciate because of the demand in business and industry to hire people who can work with people of other nations and cultures and if needed can travel independently internationally to promote their business or industry. In addition, the world faces global challenges that will take inter-disciplinary groups to solve the challenges and these will need to be solved through the gathering and sharing of knowledge across disciplines, institutions, and other entities, institutions on a global scale. In fact, globalization involves the diffusion of ideas, practices, and technologies. It is not simply modernization and westernization; it is something more than internationalization, universalization, modernization and westernization.  Education process is also undergoing constant changes under the impact of globalization.

Impact of Globalization in Higher Education:

Globalization is affecting all spheres of life through scientific and technological revolution. The impact of globalization on education brings rapid development in technology and communication.  Its impact brings changes within learning systems across the world as ideas, values and knowledge changing the roles of students and teachers and producing a society shifted from industrialization to world’s information based society.  1) Education becomes an extraordinary business opportunity, 2) A great opportunity on employment, 3) Privatization in higher education: 4) Advance technology based education 5) Change of teaching and learning methods 6) E-education system, 7) High dropout college education, 8) Poor quality of higher education, 9) Low enrolment at higher education due to uncertainty of employment, etc. are the main impacts of globalization in higher education.

Objectives of the Research

The objectives of the paper are:

1) To study the impact of globalization in higher education of Maharashtra.

2)  To study the status of higher educational institutions in Maharashtra

Methods of Data Collection

  • Secondary Data

This paper is based on secondary source of data available in books, government publications, journals, e- journals, daily news papers, internet, etc. The information has been collected, classified, tabulated and analysed and the results are interpreted.

Findings of the Study

The data are collected according to the objectives and analyzed through tabulation and calculation. The objective-wise findings are mentioned below

Objectives I

To Study the Impact of Globalization in Higher Education of

Maharashtra

  • Education as an Extraordinary Business

Globalization has made education an extraordinary business. In the current scenario,     universities from different parts of the world want to join hands with universities of Maharashtra by having partnership academic exchange joint ventures, research collaboration, building their campus in Maharashtra.

  • E-education System

 E-Education system like online education, e-books, e-library, e-classroom, use of the teachers and students are found in colleges and universities of Maharashtra.

  • Impact on Rural Women in Maharashtra

Rural women prefer to traditional education rather than advance technical education. Women learners firstly intend to enrol themselves for teachers training programmes, such as, D.T. Ed and B. Ed, etc. Privatization of higher education courses closes the doors for rural women in these institutions. Because of their poor financial condition, women prefer diploma courses to traditional degree courses. The computerization of industries promotes computer operators and computer technicians but the women mostly prefer to join as an operator. Because of their short-termed training, the rural society is unable to afford higher fees for the degrees of higher education in comparison to that they afford in the urban society.  So the impact of globalization on higher education of rural women is not widely seen till today in Maharashtra. This picture is somewhat different in urban areas.

Objective II

To Study the Status of Higher Educational Institutions in Maharashtra

As the impact of globalization brings rapid changes in the field of higher education all over the world, India as well as Maharashtra is not an exception to this trend. The number of higher education institutions is increasing day by day. The figure is shown below.

  • Maharashtra stands second in number of universities having 20 state universities, 21deemed universities and one central university.
  • Maharashtra has been playing a significant role in providing higher education through college education also. The figure is presented in the table below:

Table No: 1: Status of Colleges in Maharashtra

Status of  Colleges in Maharashtra
Name of Colleges India Maharashtra
Arts/Science 11458 1018
Medical Colleges 2019 348
Technical Colleges 1627 203
M.B.A Colleges 2626 433

Maharashtra. Likewise 348 out of 2,019 Medical Colleges, 203 out of 1, 627 Technical Colleges and  out of 2,626 M.B.A Colleges in India 433 are in Maharashtra.

  • Educational Regulatory Authorities:  Different educational authorities of higher education in Maharashtra are as follows:
  • Directorate of Medical Education and Research (DMER), Maharashtra
  • Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra
  • Directorate of Vocational Education and Training (DVET), Maharashtra
  • Higher and Technical Education Department, Maharashtra
  • Maharashtra Knowledge Corporation Limited (MKCL)
  • Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education
  • Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education (MSBTE)

Conclusion

Globalisation has been affecting all spheres of our life including higher education and the impact of globalization results the diffusion of knowledge for the benefit of all. Today, in the age of globalization expansion, excellence and inclusion are the three challenges of Indian education system. Various initiatives are taken by the government of Maharashtra with the advent of globalization namely, private sector participation in higher education, addressing quality issues at existing higher education, promoting distance education, National Assessment Accreditation Council for grading of universities and colleges collaborating with the multi-national companies establishing international centres for excellence to attract students and faculties for higher education. The central government, the state government and the policy makers should give more importance on higher education to make necessary reforms.

References

  1.  Agarwal J.C. 2004, Development of Educational System in India. Published by  Shipra Publication  New Delhi.
  2. Sagar K.V. 23 Sept 2005, Globalization of Education.
  3. Thorat Sukhadeo, 2011, Starting for the Higher Education Expansion:  www.pib.nic.in
  4. University News a Weekly Journal of Higher Education:

        www.indiaeduinfo.co.in/state/maharashtra.htm

  1. Vidhyanath R.V. Educational Policy Planning and Globalization. ayyar. sciencedirect.com/science.
  1. Human Devlopment Report 2000
  2. www.universitynews.org
  3. www.mhrd.org
  4. www.indiaeduinfo.co.in/state/Maharashtra.htm
  5. Impact of Globalization of Higher Education with Special Reference to Rural Maharashtra

        IGHERM-2012   Edited By Ramesh Sonwalkar

      6. News Paper – Lokmat Times, Sakal, Loksatta, Maharashtra Times.

 

The writer is the Head,  Deptt. of Sociology, M.P.College Kingaon, TQ Ahmedpur, Dist: Latur, Maharashtra (India)

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